Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification process that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove dissolved salts, minerals, and other impurities from water. RO is widely used for drinking water, industrial applications, and wastewater treatment. In this article, we will explain the basics of reverse osmosis, how it works, and what are its benefits and drawbacks.

How does reverse osmosis work?

Reverse osmosis works by applying pressure to a solution that contains dissolved solutes, such as seawater or brackish water. The pressure forces the solvent (water) to pass through the membrane, leaving behind the solutes on the other side. The membrane acts as a selective barrier that only allows water molecules to pass through, while rejecting the solutes. The result is pure water that has a lower concentration of dissolved solutes than the original solution.

The process of reverse osmosis can be illustrated by the following diagram:

Reverse osmosis process diagram
Reverse osmosis process diagram

The diagram shows the main components of a typical reverse osmosis system, which include:

  • A feed pump that provides the pressure needed to push the water through the membrane.
  • A pre-treatment unit that removes suspended solids, organic matter, chlorine, and other contaminants that can damage the membrane or reduce its performance.
  • A reverse osmosis unit that consists of one or more membrane modules, where the separation of water and solutes takes place.
  • A permeate stream that is the purified water that passes through the membrane.
  • A concentrate or reject stream that is the water that contains the rejected solutes and is discharged or recycled.
  • A post-treatment unit that adjusts the pH, hardness, and disinfection of the permeate water to make it suitable for the intended use.

What are the benefits of reverse osmosis?

Reverse osmosis has several advantages over other water purification methods, such as:

  • It can remove up to 99% of dissolved salts, minerals, and other impurities from water, making it ideal for drinking water and industrial applications that require high-quality water.
  • It can produce water that meets the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for potable water.
  • It can treat water from various sources, such as seawater, brackish water, groundwater, surface water, and wastewater.
  • It can reduce the energy consumption and environmental impact of water treatment by reducing the need for chemical additives and thermal processes.
  • It can be combined with other water treatment technologies, such as ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and ion exchange, to achieve higher levels of purification and recovery.

What are the drawbacks of reverse osmosis?

Reverse osmosis also has some limitations and challenges, such as:

  • It requires a high amount of pressure to overcome the natural osmotic pressure of the solution, which increases the operational and maintenance costs of the system.
  • It produces a large amount of concentrate or reject water that contains the concentrated solutes and may pose environmental and disposal problems.
  • It may remove some beneficial minerals and trace elements from water, such as calcium, magnesium, and fluoride, which may affect the taste and health benefits of the water.
  • It may be susceptible to fouling, scaling, and biofouling, which are the accumulation of organic and inorganic materials on the membrane surface that can reduce the water flux and quality.
  • It may require periodic cleaning, replacement, and monitoring of the membrane and other components to ensure optimal performance and longevity

By Krunal

Krunal Bhosale is crazy about new gadgets and try them as soon as they are available in market. You can trust him because he uses those products and write reviews about products. He is a Water and Wastewater treatment expert from Pune, India. He received his Chemical Engineering from University of Pune. You can contact him by email krunal (at)

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